“Having a child with special needs can come with all sorts of unique challenges from a financial and estate planning standpoint. Public benefits, for example, can play a huge role in anticipating how much money your child will need down the road in your later years, as well as when you've passed away.”
Many government benefits are “means tested,” which can put financial restrictions on how much money the individual can have in their name. Careful estate and financial planning is important, advises the article “How Having A Child With Special Needs Impacts Your Retirement Planning” from Forbes.
In most instances, providing financially for children ends a year or two after college. However, for the family with a special needs family member, the financial assistance does not end. It’s also likely that the child will live with their parents well into the parent’s retirement. The family will need more money during retirement to provide for their child’s needs, including therapies, transportation and hobbies.
The family may choose to have the child live in a group home setting, but those costs are substantially higher, depending on the home and the level of care required.
Parents are often more focused on planning to care for their disabled family member and overlook their own retirement planning. It is important to do both.
Social Security planning is a bigger factor for the family with a special needs family member. If parents decide to collect their Social Security benefits, they need to map out what different scenarios could mean, including delaying when to take benefits and spend down assets.
If the disability of a child with special needs began before age 22, the child may be eligible for Social Security Disability Insurance, generally half of the last surviving parent’s Social Security payment in retirement (in addition to what the parent receives). When that parent dies, the amount increases to three-quarters of the parent’s benefits. This must be calculated in terms of income now for the child while the parents are living and after the parents pass.
It’s critical for the parents of an individual with special needs to do a careful budget analysis of their own retirement income and what they will need to care for their child. Once they understand these numbers, they can figure out what assets and income streams will make the most sense. A professional financial advisor can be very helpful for this process.
The family may need to set up a special needs trust (SNT), which is best done with an experienced estate planning elder law attorney. Life insurance may be purchased to fund a child’s lifetime needs and be placed in the SNT.
The family will also need to address tax planning. Traditional 401(k) plans and IRA accounts are not taxed until withdrawals are taken. There have been a number of changes to the law in recent months, not the least of which is the CARES Act, which allows withdrawals to be made from retirement accounts with no extra penalties.
Reference: Forbes (July 1, 2020) “How Having A Child With Special Needs Impacts Your Retirement Planning”